Data are reported on the sexual behavior of 39 released sex offenders who agreed voluntarily to surgical castration while imprisoned in West Germany. Findings indicated that frequency of coitus, masturbation, and sexual thoughts are seen as strongly reduced after castration. Sexual desire and sexual arousability are perceived by the subjects as having been considerably impaired by castration. In comparison with other studies, however, it was shown that male sexual capacity was not extinguished soon after castration. Rapists proved to be sexually more active after castration than homosexuals or pedophiliacs. There seems to be a strong effect on sexual behavior only if castration is performed on males between the age of 46 and 59 years.
Chemical castration is castration via anaphrodisiac drugs , whether to reduce libido and sexual activity, to treat cancer , or otherwise. Unlike surgical castration , where the gonads are removed through an incision in the body,  chemical castration does not remove organs, nor is it a form of sterilization. In May , The New York Times reported that a number of countries use chemical castration on sex offenders , often in return for reduced sentences. When used on males, these drugs can reduce sex drive, compulsive sexual fantasies, and capacity for sexual arousal. Life-threatening side effects are rare, but some users show increases in body fat and reduced bone density, which increase long-term risk of cardiovascular disease and osteoporosis. They may also experience gynecomastia development of larger-than-normal mammary glands in males ; full development is less common unless chemical castration is combined with feminizing oestrogen therapy.
March 2, -- Increasingly severe sex offender laws nationwide are convincing some criminals to take drastic measures in an effort to prove they are fit for society — even resorting to a treatment so brutal it disappeared from the criminal justice system decades ago. At least 15 repeat sex offenders in California alone have asked for surgical castration as a way of avoiding indefinite incarceration, according to the Los Angeles Times. Over the last three years, two offenders — including a pedophile freed three months ago — have walked free from state mental hospitals after undergoing the surgery. California is one of at least seven states with laws that mandate continued civil confinement of convicted offenders even after their prison terms expire. Although opponents challenged the constitutionality of the laws for years, claiming they violate "double jeopardy" rules, the measures are here to stay.
Castration also known as orchiectomy or orchidectomy is any action, surgical , chemical , or otherwise, by which an individual loses use of the testicles : the male gonad. Surgical castration is bilateral orchiectomy excision of both testicles , and chemical castration uses pharmaceutical drugs to deactivate the testes. Castration causes sterilization preventing the castrated person or animal from reproducing ; it also greatly reduces the production of certain hormones , such as testosterone.